Great Gloomy Swamp

An excerpt from Francis Harper’s 1913 paper “A Biological Reconnaissance of the Okefinokee Swamp”, published in The Auk, the official publication of the American Ornithological Society:

American Alligator reflected in the Okefenokee blackwater swamp. March 11, 2015. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia. March 12, 2015. © Please don’t steal my images. Download and use legally at

“Near by, to the westward, lay one of those great gloomy swamps, so common in southeastern Georgia, so repellant and yet so fascinating, so full of interest to the naturalist, and yet so little explored. Among the fresh-water swamps east of the Mississippi, it is exceeded in size only by the Everglades; and in the richness of its historical and literary associations, in its diversified topography, in the marvelous beauty and charm of its interior, and in its extraordinary interest as a faunal and floral area, Okefinokee Swamp is unique.”

iNaturalist observation:

Wright, Albert and Francis Harper. A Biological Reconnaissance of the Okefinokee Swamp: The Birds. The Auk, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Oct., 1913), pp. 477-505 Published by: Oxford University Press. Stable URL:

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